Fujian Non-Jian Kiln Temmoku

Temmoku tea bowls were first produced during the Song Dynasty exclusively for tea drinking. The most famous temmoku bowls were those produced in the Jian Kiln in Fujian. Due to the large demand for temmoku bowls, they were also produced in large quantity in other kilns in Fujian as well (See Map for location of kilns).  

In the 1980s, local residents recovered a large number of Temmoku tea bowls from a Bai  Jiao Wreck in Lian Jiang, Fujian.  

The Fujian ceramic experts subsequently conducted salvage operations to recover some of the artifiacts.  They are generally of the view that those bowls found on the Bai Jiao shipwreck were products from Dong Zhang and nearby  kilns and dated to Southern Song/early Yuan Period.

Dong Zhang kiln located in Fuqing produced equally large quantities of temmoku  bowls.  According to archeological findings, Dong Zhang kiln operated from Southern Song to Mid Yuan Period. Temmoku bowls from this kiln were exported in large quantities to country such as Japan, Korea and Southeast Asian Countries. 

The most obvious difference between Jian temmoku and those from the Dong Zhang kiln is that the paste of Jian bowls is dark purplish whereas the latter come in varying tone of grey.  The black glaze of Jian bowls are thicker and tends to congeal on cooling into a thick welt.  As for  those from the  Dong Zhang kiln, most do not terminate in thick welt. In fact, usually there appear to be a second thinner layer of glaze.  The brown streaks on Dong Zhang bowls are also not as well-defined and clear compared to those from the Jian Kiln. 

Attached below are pictures of sherds from: